Surface exposure cosmogenic nuclide dating

This ‘secondary radiation’ essentially has the same energy as the initial interaction.Through successive interactions, energy is lost until the particles have insufficient energy to cause a spallation reaction upon collision with another particle.Cosmic rays (also called cosmic radiation) mainly comprise high energy nucleons (protons, neutrons and atomic nuclei).About 90% are hydrogen nuclei (a single proton with an atomic number of 1).As such, the cosmic ray flux at the equator is four times less than the flux at the poles.This is because cosmic rays are guided to the poles along the Earth’s magnetic field lines.A hadron is a composite particle made up of quarks held together by a strong force.

The first interaction is when the high energy particles collide with nuclei in the upper atmosphere. A spallation reaction is a nuclear reaction where a highly energetic nucleon (usually a secondary cosmic-ray neutron of energy) collides with a target nucleus.A muon is about 2/3rds of the size of a proton or a neutron.They are unstable, lasting only a few hundredths of a microsecond.The particles bounce about in the magnetic field of the remnant anomaly until they gain sufficient energy to escape the system, whereupon they become cosmic rays. It is now known that most cosmic rays are atomic nuclei.Most are hydrogen nuclei, some are helium nuclei, and the rest heavier elements.

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Their flight paths are uniform across the galaxy; they strike the Earth at random orientations.

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